ACSF, CSF, ESF UN R79

Europe

Assisted Driving Systems
With the popularity of assisted driving systems, features such as lane-keeping and automatic lane change are becoming standard configurations in an increasing number of vehicles on sale. CSF and ESF refer to the corrective steering function and emergency steering function respectively. According to the UN R79 regulation, vehicles equipped with ACSF, CSF, and ESF functions need to be tested and achieve the E-mark type approval of R79 in order to get access to the EU market.

ATIC experts are working under designated technical services in Europe to conduct Initial Assessment, Witness Testing and CoP assessment as authorized inspectors under authorities including e/E4 Netherland, e/E5 Sweden, e/E13 Luxembourg, e/E24 Ireland, e/E49 Cyprus.

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Assisted Driving Systems Basic Technical Requirements
No.
Classification
Definition
Basic Technical Requirements
Common Product Function Names
1
ACSF A
Means a function that operates at a speed no greater than 10 km/h to assist the driver, on demand, in low speed or parking manoeuvring.
Whenever the system becomes operational, this shall be indicated to the driver. Any termination of control shall produce a short but distinctive driver warning by an optical warning signal and either an acoustic warning signal or by imposing a haptic warning signal. 
APA
The system shall be able to be deactivated by the driver at any time. 
If the vehicle has RCP (remote control parking) function, the specified maximum RCP operating range shall not exceed 6m. A direct influence on steering angle via the remote control device shall not be possible.
2
ACSF B1
Means a function which assists the driver in keeping the vehicle within the chosen lane, by influencing the lateral movement of the vehicle.
The maximum lateral acceleration should below 3m/s2. The moving average over half a second of the lateral jerk generated by the system shall not exceed 5 m/s3
LCC
The steering control effort necessary to override the directional control provided by the system shall not exceed 50N.
3
ACSF B2
Means a function which is initiated/activated by the driver and which keeps the vehicle within its lane by influencing the lateral movement of the vehicle for extended periods without further driver command/confirmation.
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4
ACSF C
Means a function which is initiated/activated by the driver and which can perform a single lateral manoeuvre (e.g. lane change) when commanded by the driver.
The initiation of a lane change procedure of an ACSF of Category C shall only be possible if an ACSF of Category B1 is already active. 
ALC
For M1 vehicles, in case of an automatic initiation, the lane change manoeuvre shall commence between 3.0 seconds and 5.0 seconds after the manual activation of direction indicator. 
Once the lane change manoeuvre has completed, ACSF of Category B1 lane keeping function shall resume automatically. 
Manual deactivation of the lane change procedure, using the manual control of the direction indicator, shall be possible for the driver at any time. 
The steering control effort necessary to override the directional control provided by the system shall not exceed 50N.
5
ACSF D
Means a function which is initiated/activated by the driver and which can indicate the possibility of a single lateral manoeuvre (e.g. lane change) but performs that function only following a confirmation by the driver.
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6
ACSF E
Means a function which is initiated/activated by the driver and which can continuously determine the possibility of a manoeuvre (e.g. lane change) and complete these manoeuvres for extended periods without further driver command/confirmation.
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7
CSF
Corrects direction, improves vehicle stability (e.g. when encountering side winds, changes in road adhesion coefficient) and corrects lane deviation in a limited time. 
Every CSF intervention shall immediately be indicated to the driver by an optical warning signal. 
LKA
In the case of an intervention longer than 10s for vehicles of category M1, an acoustic warning signal shall be provided until the end of the intervention. 
In the case of two or more consecutive interventions within a rolling interval of 180 seconds and in the absence of a steering input by the driver during the intervention, an acoustic warning signal shall be provided by the system during the second and any further intervention within a rolling interval of 180seconds. Starting with the third intervention (and subsequent interventions) the acoustic warning signal shall continue for at least 10 seconds longer than the previous warning signal. 
The steering control effort necessary to override the directional control provided by the system shall not exceed 50N.
8
ESF
A potential collision can be detected, and the vehicle can steer to avoid the collision within a limited time.
Any ESF shall only start an intervention in the case where a risk of a collision is detected.
ELK
An automatic avoidance manoeuvre initiated by an ESF shall not lead the vehicle to leave the road. Any intervention of an ESF shall be indicated to the driver with an optical and with an acoustic or haptic warning signal to be provided at the latest with the start of the ESF intervention. 
The steering control effort necessary to override the directional control provided by the system shall not exceed 50N.

Assisted Driving Systems Test Requirements
No.
Classification
Test Requirements
Test Pass Conditions
1
ACSF A
Whenever the system becomes operational, this shall be indicated to the driver.
Refer to the main technical requirements
The system shall be able to be deactivated by the driver at any time. If a door or trunk of the vehicle is opened during the parking manoeuvre, the vehicle shall stop immediately.
If the ACSF A is remote controlled parking (RCP), the specified maximum RCP operating range shall not exceed 6 m. A direct influence on steering angle, value of acceleration and deceleration via the remote control device shall not be possible.
2
ACSF B1
Lane keeping functional test : The test shall be carried out for each speed range of the four speed range: 10-60km/h, 60-100km/h, 100-130km/h, above 130km/h. The vehicle shall be driven without any force applied by the driver on the steering control (e.g. by removing the hands from the steering control) with a constant speed on a curved track with lane markings at each side. The necessary lateral acceleration to follow the curve shall be between 80 and 90 percent of the maximum lateral acceleration specified by the vehicle manufacturer aysmax.
The outer edge of the front wheels of the vehicle does not cross the outer edge of any lane marking; The moving average over half a second of the lateral jerk does not exceed 5 m/s3.
Maximum lateral acceleration test: The test shall be carried out for each speed range of the four speed range: 10-60km/h, 60-100km/h, 100-130km/h, above 130km/h. The vehicle shall be driven without any force applied by the driver on the steering control (e.g. by removing the hands from the steering control) with a constant speed on a curved track with lane markings at each side.
The recorded acceleration is within the limits specified in this Regulation. The moving average over half a second of the lateral jerk does not exceed 5 m/s3.
Overriding force test: The vehicle shall be driven without any force applied by the driver on the steering control (e.g. by removing the hands from the steering control) with a constant speed on a curved track with lane markings at each side. The necessary lateral acceleration to follow the curve shall be between 80 and 90 percent of the maximum lateral acceleration specified by the vehicle manufacturer aysmax.
The force applied by the driver on the steering control during the overriding manoeuvre is less than 50N.
Transition test; hands-on test: The vehicle shall be driven with activated ACSF with a vehicle test speed between Vsmin + 10 km/h and Vsmin + 20 km/h on a track with lane markings at each side of the lane. The driver shall release the steering control and continue to drive until the ACSF is deactivated by the system. The test shall be repeated with a vehicle test speed between Vsmax - 20 km/h and Vsmax - 10 km/h or 130 km/h whichever is lower.
The optical warning signal was given at the latest 15 s after the steering control has been released and remains until ACSF is deactivated. The acoustic warning signal was given at the latest 30 s after the steering control has been released and remains until ACSF is deactivated. The ACSF is deactivated at the latest 30s after the acoustic warning signal has started, with an acoustic emergency signal of at least 5s, which is different from the previous acoustic warning signal.
3
ACSF C
Lane change functional test: The test vehicle shall be driven in a lane of a straight test track, which has at least two lanes in the same direction of travel, with road markings on each side of the lanes. The ACSF of Category C shall be activated, another vehicle shall approach from the rear, the approaching vehicle shall then pass the vehicle under test entirely. A lane change into the adjacent lane shall then be initiated by the driver. The vehicle speed shall be: Vsmin + 10km/h.
The lateral movement towards the marking does not start earlier than 1 second after the lane change procedure was initiated. The lateral movement to approach the lane marking and the lateral movement necessary to complete the lane change manoeuvre are completed as one continuous movement. The recorded lateral acceleration does not exceed 1 m/s2. The moving average over half a second of the lateral jerk does not exceed 5 m/s3. The lane change manoeuver is completed in less than 5 seconds for M1. ACSF of Category B1 automatically resumes after the lane change manoeuvre is completed. The direction indicator is deactivated not before the end of the lane change manoeuvre and no later than 0.5 seconds after ACSF of Category B1 has resumed.
Minimum activation speed test: The test vehicle shall be driven in a lane of a straight test track, which has at least two lanes in the same direction of travel, with road markings on each side of the lanes. The vehicle speed shall be: Vsmin - 10km/h. Another vehicle shall approach from the rear, the approaching vehicle shall then pass the vehicle under test entirely. A lane change into the adjacent lane shall then be initiated by the driver.
The lane change manoeuvre is not performed.
Overriding test: The test vehicle shall be driven in a lane of a straight test track, which has at least two lanes in the same direction of travel, with road markings on each side of the lanes. The vehicle speed shall be: Vsmin +10km/h. A lane change into the adjacent lane shall then be initiated by the driver. The steering control shall be firmly controlled by the driver to maintain the vehicle in the straight direction.
The measured overriding force does not exceed 50N.
Lane Change Procedure suppression test: The test vehicle shall be driven in a lane of a straight test track, which has at least two lanes in the same direction of travel, with road markings on each side of the lanes. The vehicle speed shall be: Vsmin +10km/h. The ACSF of Category C shall be activated. Another vehicle shall approach from the rear, the approaching vehicle shall then pass the vehicle under test entirely. A lane change into the adjacent lane shall then be initiated by the driver.
The lane change procedure is suppressed, for each of the test cases below:
 (a) The system is overridden by the driver;
 (b) The system is switched off by the driver;
 (c) The vehicle speed is reduced to: Vsmin-10 km/h;
 (d) The driver has removed his hands from the steering control;
 (e) The direction indicator lamps are manually deactivated by the driver;
 (f) The lane change manoeuvre has not commenced within 5.0 seconds following the initiation of the lane change procedure. (e.g. another vehicle is driving in the adjacent lane in a critical situation).
Sensor performance test: The test vehicle shall be driven in a lane of a straight test track, which has at least two lanes in the same direction of travel, with road markings on each side of the lanes. The vehicle speed shall be: Vsmin +10km/h. Another vehicle shall approach from the rear on the adjacent lane, with a speed of 120 km/h. The approaching vehicle shall be a type approved high volume series production motorcycle of category L3 with an engine capacity not exceeding 600 cm3 without front fairing or windshield and shall aim to drive in the middle of the lane. The distance between the rear end of the test vehicle and the front end of the approaching vehicle shall be measured.
The system detects the approaching vehicle no later than at the distance declared by the vehicle manufacturer (Srear).
Sensor blindness test: The test vehicle shall be driven in a lane of a straight test track, which has at least two lanes in the same direction of travel, with road markings on each side of the lanes. The vehicle speed shall be: Vsmin +10km/h. The rear sensor(s) shall be made blind, with means agreed between the vehicle manufacturer and the Technical Service. The ACSF of Category C shall be activated. Another vehicle shall approach from the rear, the approaching vehicle shall then pass the vehicle under test entirely. A lane change into the adjacent lane shall then be initiated by the driver.
The system detects the sensor blindness, provides a warning to the driver and is prevented from performing the lane change manoeuvre.
The test vehicle shall be driven in a lane of a straight test track, which has at least two lanes in the same direction of travel, with road markings on each side of the lanes. The vehicle speed shall be: Vsmin +10km/h.
Phase 1 - Default-off test: Following a new engine start /run cycle performed by the driver, the test vehicle shall be driven in a lane of a straight test track. The ACSF of Category C shall not be activated and another vehicle shall approach from the rear and the approaching vehicle shall pass the vehicle entirely. A lane change into the adjacent lane shall then be initiated by the driver.
The lane change manoeuvre is not initiated.
Phase 2 - The objective of the test is to check that the lane change manoeuvre is prevented if the system has not detected any moving object at a distance equal or greater than the distance Srear. Following a new engine start / run cycle performed by the driver, the test vehicle shall be driven in a lane of a straight test track. The ACSF of Category C shall be manually activated. A lane change procedure shall then be initiated by the driver.
The lane change manoeuvre is not started.
Phase 3 - Lane change enabling conditions test: The objective of the test is to check that the lane change manoeuvre is only possible once the system has detected a moving object at a distance equal or greater than the distance Srear. Following the completion of the test phase 2, another vehicle shall approach from the rear on the adjacent lane in order to enable the system. The distance between the rear end of the test vehicle and the front end of the approaching vehicle shall be measured. And the value when the system detects the approaching vehicle be recorded. After the rear coming vehicle has entirely passed the vehicle under test, a lane change procedure shall be initiated by the driver.
(a) The lane change manoeuver is executed; 
(b) The approaching vehicle is detected no later than at the distance declared by the vehicle manufacturer (Srear).
4
CSF
Warning test for CSF: The vehicle shall be driven with an activated CSF on a road with lane markings on each side of the lane. Reference test speed 72±1km/h. The vehicle shall be driven such that it attempts to leave the lane and causes CSF intervention to be maintained for a period longer than 10 s (for M1, N1).
The acoustic warning is provided no later than 10 s (for M1, N1) after the beginning of the intervention. The vehicle shall be driven such that it attempts to leave the lane and causes at least three interventions of the system within a rolling interval of 180s. An optical warning signal is provided for each intervention, as long as the intervention exists, and an acoustic warning signal is provided at the second and third intervention, and the acoustic warning signal at the third intervention is at least 10 s longer than the one at the second intervention.
Overriding force test: The vehicle shall be driven with an activated CSF on a road with lane markings on each side of the lane. Reference test speed 72±1km/h. CSF shall be activated.
The force applied by the driver on the steering control to override the intervention does not exceed 50N.
5
ESF
Test for ESF Type a i/ii (unintentional lateral manoeuvre): A target vehicle driving in the adjacent lane shall approach the vehicle under test and one of the vehicles shall minimize their lateral separation distance until an ESF intervention is started. Reference test speed 72±1km/h.
The optical, acoustic, tactile warning signal are provided no later than the ESF intervention starts, and the ESF intervention does not lead the vehicle to leave its original lane.
Test for ESF Type a iii (intentional lateral manoeuvre): The vehicle under test starts a lane change while another vehicle is driving in the adjacent lane such that no intervention of the ESF system would lead to a collision. Reference test speed 72±1km/h.
An ESF intervention is started, and the optical, acoustic, tactile warnings are provided no later than the ESF intervention starts, and the ESF intervention does not lead the vehicle to leave its original lane. ESF avoids vehicle collisions.

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