Brief: The EU officially published the new general safety regulation Regulation (EU) 2019/2144 (referred to as the new GSR) at the end of December 2019, the new GSR aims to enhance the protection of occupants of vehicles, vulnerable road users and reduce traffic accident rates and casualties. The new GSR requires the implementation of an Advanced Driver Distraction Warning System from July 6, 2024, when new models must be equipped with an ADDW system that complies with technical regulations. ADDW system should help drivers focus on driving tasks and warn them when they are distracted. While the EU has not released any ADDW regulations or drafts until July 2022 with the entry into force getting closer, the EU Commission released the latest research report for ADDW systems, laying the initial foundation for further regulations.
At present, the EU experts have preliminary analyzed the technical requirements of the ADDW system, pointing out the necessary functions, monitoring indicators, test procedures, and other basic requirements of systems. This introduction will be divided into two parts. Here is the first parts.
The Advanced Driver Distraction Warning (ADDW) system is designed to help the driver focus on the driving task and warns drivers through the Human Machine Interface (HMI) when they are distracted. The system needs to keep detecting drivers’ visual attention.
Driver distraction(trigger behaviors)
There are two types of distraction behaviors monitored by the system.
Type1 is defined as a single long glance to the area not relevant for driving for 2s to 3s and more.
Type 2 is defined as frequently shifting gaze between the driving task and distracting task.
Metrics for monitoring distraction
The experts recommended that the system should monitor the driver's eye movements mainly through the camera and secondary indicators related to the vehicle and the environment, for determining whether the driver is distracted or not.
While there will be eye occlusion or data missing, the head or face features should be monitored at the same time.
|Primary metrics||Eye gaze direction||Eye Movement|
|As conjunction or substitute of primary metrics|
Coarse visual behavior (head or face)
|Rotation, tilt angle|
|Secondary metrics||Vehicle-related||Turning signals, wipers, ADAS…|
|Driving related||Lane standard deviation, speed standard deviation…|
|Environment-related||Weather, time of day, vehicles, and objects at the time|
Threshold of Visual metrics
The threshold varies by distraction types, as shown in the table below. The corresponding thresholds can only be determined after the trigger behaviors requirement is established. If both trigger behaviors mentioned above become a requirement for a system, Glance Duration should be recommended for Type 1, where more research needs to be conducted to determine the most sensitive and appropriate measurement(s) for Type 2.
|Type of distraction||Type||Definition and threshold|
|Type1 (long distraction)||percentage of time within 1 minute that the gaze falls within a road center area of 8 ̊ radius from road center|
(frequently shifting gaze between the driving)
|Percentage Road Centre||percentage of time within 1 minute that the gaze falls within a road center area of 8 ̊ radius from road center|
|Total Eyes-Off Road|
the summation of all glance durations to areas of interest other than the road scene ahead during a condition, task, subtask or sub-subtask
|Total Glance Duration||summation of all glance durations to an area of interest (or set of related Areas of Interest) during a condition, task, subtask or sub-subtask|
|Glance Frequency||number of glances to a target within a pre-defined time period, or during a predefined task, where each glance is separated by at least one glance to a different target|
Please follow the second part of ADDW system technical analysis.
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