ADDW | New GSR | Advanced Driver Distraction Warning System | EU certification

Europe

Advanced Driver Distraction Warning Systems (ADDW)
The EU officially published the new general safety regulation Regulation (EU) 2019/2144 (referred to as the new GSR) at the end of December 2019. To prevent visual distraction-related crashes, Regulation (EU) 2019/2144 mandates the implementation of Advanced Drivers Distraction Warning (ADDW) systems for new types of vehicles from 2024. ADDW system should help drivers focus on driving tasks and warn them when they are distracted. 

ATIC experts are working under designated technical services in Europe to conduct Initial Assessment, Witness Testing and CoP assessment as authorized inspectors under authorities including e/E4 Netherland, e/E5 Sweden, e/E13 Luxembourg, e/E24 Ireland, e/E49 Cyprus.

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General Steps

Application
Manufacturer submits DDAW application documents
Manufacturer submits system functionality and system validation documents
Initial Assessment
ATIC experts review application document.
ATIC experts evaluate the documentation package.
Testing
ATIC experts assess the manufacturer's test plan and capability, then perform the test based on the proposed protocol
Approval
Authority will review and issue type approval certificate if all the documents, tests, drawings fulfill the regulation and requirements.
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Definitions

Definition: The Advanced Driver Distraction Warning (ADDW) system shall determine when the driver’s visual attention is not directed toward the driving tasks and alert the driver through the vehicle’s human machine interface
Adaptable typeM, N
Distraction areaArea of interested where drivers gaze at
Metrics about distraction: Gaze fixation point, gaze duration


Area 1 is designated as overlap of the following zones: 
(a) The roof of the vehicle;
(b) Any area in the vehicle which is outside (with respect to the forward looking direction of the driver considered at 0°of orientation) of the two vertical planes, one, rotated +55°(to the right) and one rotated –55°(to the left) in relation to the longitudinal direction of the vehicle, both planes intersecting in the ocular reference point as defined below.

Area 2 is designated as union of the zones listed below:
(a) The area of the windscreen and windows;
(b) 10°around the area of the windscreen and windows as seen from the ocular reference point.

Area 3 is designated by any area below a plane, 30°downward from the driver’s ocular reference point and by the interaction with Area 1 and Area 2 described hereafter.
(a) By default, any area considered in Area 1 are excluded from Area 3. The vehicle manufacturer can choose to include part of the area from Area 1 to the Area 3;
(b) All the areas covered in Area 2 are excluded from Area 3.

Techinical Requirements

The length of time during which the gaze of the driver is directed at the area 3 shall be counted when the ADDW system is activated. This length of time is measured regardless of the speed of the vehicle, as long as the ADDW system is activated and able to measure it.

Speed
Situation
Distraction area
Threshold
≥50km/h
Nominal
Area 3
Last for a maximum time of 3.5s
Non-nominal*
Last for a maximum time of 5s
≥20km/h
Nominal
Last for a maximum time of 6s
Non-nominal*
Last for a maximum time of 7.5s
*Non-nominal situations as driver with glasses or head accessory, hat or mask, including facial hair other than eyebrows.

Note: The length of time during which the gaze of the driver is in area 3 shall not be reset due to possible image processing artefact or a short change of gaze direction ‘in, out and back in’ of the area 3. The allowed time tolerance for the events described shall be defined by the vehicle manufacturer, with a minimum time tolerance of 50 milliseconds (eye saccades)

Distraction warning
  • Visual warning: Steady or or flashing indication (e.g. tell-tale, pop-up message, etc.)
  • Acoustic warning: Acoustic warning shall fall within the frequency spectrum of 200-8000 Hz and amplitude range of 50-90 dB.The vehicle manufacturer may adjust the amplitude depending on the surrounding noise level
  • Haptic warning

Failure warning
  • Permanent failure:
A failure warning signal shall be indicated to the driver in the case of an electrically detectable failure
The system shall recognise a non-temporary sensor obscuration event and deliver the failure warning signal as laid down in point 3.5.1.1. which shall be displayed. A sensor obscuration event covers at a minimum in the event when no light is measured by the sensor when the ADDW system is activated
  • Temporary failures:
Upon detection of a temporary non-electrical failure condition, the failure warning signal as laid down in point 3.5.1. may be displayed. An information shall be provided to the driver concerning the current limitation of the ADDW system and/or typical limitations of the ADDW system

General Requirements



ADDW
DDAW
Activation &
deactivation
Activation speed
20km/h(permit 1min for calibration)
70km/h
Manually deactivate
Warning or system
Only warning
Autonomy deactivation
When another system takes over the entire dynamic driving task or driver-assisted vehicle system with DMS
Situations pre-defined by the manufacturer
Reactivation
Automatically reactivated as soon as the conditions that led to its automatic deactivation are no longer present
HMI warning
Visual + acoustic and/or haptic
Visual + acoustic or 
Visual + acoustic +…
100 Hz to 300 Hz 
/
Purpose
Designed to minimise the system error rate (false positive) under real driving conditions
Privacy and data protection
GDPR
Test procedure
Verification test
Manufacture validation+verification

Validation Test - Spot - Check

Requirement item
Contents
Test driver
At least 1driver
Coverage of area: ±100 mm longitudinally and ±50 mm vertically around the ocular reference point
Non-nominal: With glasses or head accessory etc. (If choose)
Test conditions
May be simulated to facilitate the testing
Test vehicle speed
20~35km/h
50~65km/h
Test procedure
Test paradigm:
Driving task + visual distraction task
Premise
Driver is not distracted at least 60s, and vehicle speed meets the requirement

Test protocol(20~35km/h,50~65km/h)
  • Driving task
15s driving (non-distraction phase)
  • Distracted task
Driver looks at the required gaze fixation point in order until trigger the warning. Each point is need to be gazed at least 3s
  • Driving task
15s driving (non-distraction phase)
  • Distracted task
Driver looks at the required gaze fixation point in order until trigger the warning. Each point is need to be gazed at least 3s
……


Chose at least one gaze fixation point from the area listed in (a)~(n)
(a) Driver's left knee:
(b) Driver's right knee;
(c) Driver's lap;
(d) Passenger' s footwell or similar location looking down toward the front lower area of the vehicle from left or right from the driver's seat;
(e) Passenger's seat surface or similar location looking down left or right from the drivers seat toward a surface intended to seat a passenger, store goods or allow passenger's movement in the vehicle;
(f) Glove box or similar location at 30° (vertical) from the other side(from the driver' s side) of the front compartment of the vehicle;
(g) Air vents to the immediate left side of the driver:
(h) Air vents to the immediate right side of the driver;
(i) Instrument cluster, excluding the heads-up display nor a display crossing the base of the windscreen;
(j) Steering wheel, when equipped with buttons for interacting with the infotainment system or assistance systems;
(k) Gear shifter;
(i) Heating, ventilation, and airconditioning controls;
(m) Infotainment display;
(n) Centre console, consisting of the forward zone near dashboard panel, if not covered by any other fixation point referred to from (a) to (m).

Distraction area
Vehicle speed
Condition
Threshold
TP criterion
Pass standards
Area 3
≥50km/h
Nominal condition
Sustain 3.5s
Warn in 4~4.5s
All gaze fixation points are TP in both required speeds
Non-nominal condition
Sustain 5s
(If choose)
≥20km/h
Nominal condition
Sustain 6s
Warn in
Non-nominal condition
Sustain 7.5s
(If choose)
* The re-test procedure must be performed for a maximum of two times for each fixation point assessed as FN.

Validation Dossier

(a) An explanation of the system’s activation, reactivation and deactivation functions, including the associated vehicle speed ranges;
(b) A list of all the system inputs containing all the metrics adopted for measuring driver distraction;
(c) A description of how the metrics function and monitor driving behaviour, including, if applicable, the relationship between primary and secondary/fall-back metrics;
(d) A description of the triggers in driving behaviour being monitored by the system;
(e) A description of the area around the ocular reference possible for the system and, if a reference to a standard is used, the area where the eyes of test driver are expected to be, as set out in Part 2, point 1.3.1.1. (b);
(f) A description (textual description, illustration, technical drawing or any other sufficient means) of the area within the vehicle cabin that the system considers to be areas 1, 2, and 3, in accordance with Part 1, point 3.3.1., for assessing driver distraction; 
(g) The zone(s) delimiting the placement of each of the gaze fixation points for spot-check testing within the vehicle cabin, in accordance with Part 2, point 1.4.3.;
(h) A document detailing the components of the system’s human-machine interface as well as their intended functionality. including the following:
(i) Evidence of compliance with the ADDW human-machine interface requirements in accordance with Part 1, point 3.4., and justifications if the vehicle manufacturer chooses not to follow the recommendations set out in Part 1, points 3.4.2.3., 3.4.2.4., 3.4.2.5., 3.4.3.2, and 3.4.4.2.;
(ii) If applicable, a description of the strategy for repetition, cascading or escalation of the warning emission for the cases in which the driver fails to comply with the emitted distraction warnings.
(i) An explanation how the ADDW system may be tuned if the vehicle is adapted for a driver with special need.

The documentation package shall also include a list with the description of the system limitations.
The list of any secondary metrics shall not be passed on from the technical service to the approval authority.

(a) Evidence about the system’s performance collected in repeated tests conducted with human drivers, including the information on the number and demographics of test participants assessed, comprising:
(i) Inclusionary and exclusionary criteria that were used when selecting participants, ensuring that the system has been deemed effective, within its limitation ranges, for a representative part of the driving population in the Union;
(ii) A statement on the adequacy of the participants in respect of the targeted demography for the vehicle (for example, participants with a valid license to drive the vehicle on which the ADDW system is installed).
(b) A description of the test conditions assessed, including information on test repeatability and reproducibility;
(c) Evidence that the system works effectively in weather and lighting conditions not limiting the system’s operation.

Document its limitations with regard to real-world open-road testing for the purpose of testing the ADDW system. Such documentation shall include the following:
(a) A comparison of primary input data used for the ADDW system from the simulator and primary input data from the vehicle in real conditions;
(b) An analysis of the validity of the simulated validation’s results.

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