Turning manoeuvres involving collisions between trucks turning right and cyclists, typically occurring at lower driving speeds or standstill, usually have serious consequences for vulnerable road users (VRU). In the past, the safety of VRU was raised by an improvement of the truck driver's vision by increasing the number of mirrors and by equipping trucks with side under-run protection. Since turning accidents still happen and Blind Spot Information System (BSIS) and Moving Off Information System (MOIS) have been introduced in a lot of vehicle segments. BSIS means a system installed on a truck to inform the driver of a possible collision with a bicycle near side, it is obvious to use such assistance systems for avoiding accidents between turning trucks and cyclists. MOIS means a system to detect and inform the driver of the presence of pedestrians and cyclists in the close-proximity forward blind-spot of the vehicle.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) officially announced the technical regulations UN R151 related to the blind spot monitoring system and the technical regulations UN R159 related to the moving off information system. The UN R151 regulation has come into effect on November 15, 2019. The UN R159 regulation has come into effect on June 10, 2021, and will be mandatory for M2, M3, N2, N3 new models on July 6, 2022, and be enforced to for M2, M3, N2, N3 new registrations on July 7, 2024. Considering the international influence of the UNECE regulation, it can be foreseen to increase More countries will adopt UN R151, UN R159 as the technical standard of their blind spot monitoring system and the moving off monitoring system.
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UN ECE R136: UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES OF CATEGORY L WITH REGARD TO SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ELECTRIC POWER TRAIN AND UPDATES RELATED TO TESTING
UN ECE R136 regulation was updated on January 4, 2023 regarding the test methods and requirements for electrical safet...
The first application for a manufacture to an authority generally requires initial assessment. In most of the cases ATIC experts will conduct the onsite initial assessment. Some authority can exempt onsite initial assessment by accepting ISO/IATF certificates.
According to EU/UN Regulations information document including sufficient drawings of the vehicle/component shall be prepared and submitted to technical service by the manufacture/applicant. ATIC experts also can support manufacture/applicant to prepare information document based on CAD drawings and vehicle/component specifications.
The manufacture should prepare vehicles with software at final stage, and ATIC experts will perform witness test in the test track.
Information Documents, Technical Reports as well as other technical documents if needed will be submitted to relevant authority. Authority will review and issue type approval certificate if all the documents, tests, drawings fulfill the regulations and requirements.A typical lead-time for this review process is 4 to 6 weeks.
After the approval the CoP audit/test maybe conducted based on regulations and authorities' requirements
Other Key Points
- This Regulation applies to the blind spot information system of vehicles of categories N2, N3, M2 and M3.
- The requirements of this Regulation are so worded as to apply to vehicles which are developed for right-hand traffic. In vehicles that are developed for left-hand traffic, these requirements shall be applied by inverting the criteria, when appropriate.
- Generally, initial assessment is required, and the CoP audit is required from time to time after the type approval certificate is issued. The CoP policies of different Ministry of Transportation departments are slightly different.
EU/UNECE type approvals are granted to the Manufacturer
- No matter where the products to be approved are manufactured - If the manufacturer is located outside the European Economic Area and applies for a WVTA the manufacture shall appoint a representative located in EEA - For other type approvals the manufacture can appoint a representative located in EEA - Actions/declarations of the representative have the same effect as of those made by the (future) approval holder
- Type Approval (Mandatory)
- Ministry of Transportation
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R151 and BSIS
BSIS is a system installed on a truck that informs the truck driver of a possible collision with a bicycle on the near side so that the driver can take timely action to avoid a traffic accident. The system involves two types of alert signals, information signals and warning signals.
▸ R151 Definitions
▸ Information Signal
▸ Warning Signal
Blind Spot Information System
Blind Spot Information System (BSIS) means a system to inform the driver of a possible collision with a bicycle near side.
Near side means the side of the vehicle near the bicycle. The near side of the vehicle is the right side for right-hand traffic.
Bicycle means a combination of a bicycle and cyclist, the test device according to ISO [CD] 19206-4 .
Collision point means the position where the trajectory of any vehicle point would intersect with any bicycle points if a turn by the vehicle is initiated.
Impact Position means the location of impact of the bicycle on the right side of the vehicle with respect to the vehicle front right corner, when both vehicles have reached the collision point.
Fundamentals BSIS uses an optical information signal to inform the truck driver that there is a bicycle nearby. If the bicycle has been driving in a critical area where a collision may occur, the information signal will always remain to remind the truck driver. The information signal shall only be deactivated automatically in case of system failure or contamination of the sensors; a manual deactivation shall not be possible. This information signal shall be visible by daylight and at night. The device emitting the information signal shall be located at the near side at a horizontal angle greater than 30° towards an axis parallel to the longitudinal median plane of the vehicle and going through the ocular reference point.
Features Low intensity Low annoyance if issued too often Lesser effect in steering driver's attention > 30° to the right of the driver Only automatic deactivation (ice, snow on sensors, ...)
Dynamic Test The truck and bicycle are both in motion and the bicycle enters a critical area of potential collision with the truck, but the truck driver does not yet have the intent to turn and an informational signal alert appears.
Static Test The truck is stationary, the bicycle is moving, the bicycle enters horizontally or vertically into a critical area where it may collide with the truck, and an information signal appears.
The warning signal shall be activated at the earliest when the system detects a potential collision, e.g. by the intention of a turn towards the bicycle, e.g. by evaluating the distance between or trajectory intersection of vehicle and bicycle, direction indicator activation or similar. If it is the optical signal, this signal shall be visible by daylight and at night. The warning signal is different from the information signal in the mode or start strategy. It is easy for the driver to understand and associate it with the potential danger. This warning signal can be manually or automatically deactivated. In the event of malfunction or sensor contamination, it disabled with the information signal.
Features If issued right, good effects in steering driver‘s attention High annoyance if issued too often Different to information signal in mode or activation strategy Activation strategy decided by Vehicle Manufacturer （ manually or automatically deactivated ） not before collision becomes imminent
Dynamic Test Both trucks and bicycles are moving, the bicycle enters a key area that may collide with the truck, and the truck driver intends to turn. When BSIS evaluates the intersection of the trajectory or detects the operation of the turn indicator on the steering wheel, a warning signal appears to remind. The verification of the warning signal is achieved through technical document review.
Static Test: The truck is stationary, the bicycle is moving, and the bicycle enters the key area that may collide with the truck horizontally or vertically, and an information signal or warning signal appears. The verification of the warning signal is achieved through technical document review.
R159 and MOIS
▸ R159 Definitions
▸ MOIS Definitions
▸ MOIS Specifications
▸ Static Crossing Tests
▸ Longitudinal Stopping for Moving Off Cyclist Tests
▸ Longitudinal Moving Off with Cyclist Tests
Moving Off Information System (MOIS) means a system to detect and inform the driver of the presence of pedestrians and cyclists in the close-proximity forward blind-spot of the vehicle and, if deemed necessary based on manufacturer strategy, warn the driver of a potential collision. If deemed necessary based on manufacturer strategy, warn the driver of a potential collision. That is, when the vehicle is ready to start from a static state or drive straight at a low speed of no more than 10km/h, an information signal will be activated to remind the driver of the presence of pedestrians and cyclists in the close-proximity forward blind-spot of the vehicle, the information signal is low-intensity, and can be activated early enough to remind the driver; When the risk of collision increases, for example, when the vehicle accelerates from a standstill and a pedestrian or cyclist is located directly in front of the vehicle, a collision warning signal will be issued to remind the driver.
This Regulation applies to the approval of vehicles of categories M2, M3, N2 and N3 with regard to an onboard system to detect and inform the driver of the presence of pedestrians and cyclists in the close-proximity forward blind-spot of the vehicle and, if deemed necessary based on manufacturer strategy, warn the driver of a potential collision.
The requirements of this Regulation are so worded as to apply to vehicles which are developed for right-hand traffic. In vehicles that are developed for left-hand traffic, these requirements shall be applied by inverting the criteria, where appropriate.
"Nearside" means the right side of the vehicle for right-hand traffic.
"Offside" means the left side of the vehicle for right-hand traffic. "Pedestrian test target" means an adult or child sized pedestrian simulated by a soft target device specified according to ISO 19206-2:2018. "Cyclist test target" means an adult sized cyclist and bicycle simulated by a soft target and bicycle device specified according to ISO (CD) 19206-4. "Last Point of Information (LPI)" means the point at which the information signal shall have been given. "Vulnerable Road User (VRU)" means an adult or child pedestrian or an adult or child cyclist.
Detection of presence of VRUs in close proximity to vehicle front
Provision of signal to alert driver of VRU presence
a)Information signal (medium-urgency, low-intrusion)
b)Collision warning signal (high-urgency, high-intrusion)
Automatic deactivation: if malfunction, contamination or low ambient light (≤15 lux)
Manual deactivation: through a sequence of intentional actions，such as a double press
Human-Machine Interface (HMI) Information signal
a)Medium-urgency, low-intrusion signal
b)Advance alert for presence of VRUs in close-proximity to front
c)Optical signal only
Collision warning signal
a)High-urgency, high-intrusion signal
b)Manufacturer defined strategy to alert driver of imminent collision
c)At least two signal modes provided from optical, acoustic and haptic (optical signal shall be different from information signal)
Failure warning signal
a)Signal to alert driver of automatic deactivation
b)Optical signal only – shall be different from information signal
Trade off between true positives (detection of VRUs at risk) and false positives (detection of VRUs not at risk).
Minimize false positives.
Maximum forward separation plane
a)Based on most forward point of the blind spot boundary
b)Maximum of 3.7 m, minimum of 1.0 m, from vehicle front
Minimum forward separation plane. Distance of 0.8 m from vehicle front Nearside/offside separation planes
a)Dependent on vehicle manoeuvre
b)Potential moving off manoeuvre: 0.5 m outboard from vehicle width c)Low speed manoeuvre: in line with vehicle width (vehicle trajectory)
The vehicle is stationary, but the main control switch has been activated and is in forward gear.
Driving perpendicular to the vehicle longitudinal centerline plane, accelerating no more than 15m to reach a target speed of 3km/h or 5km/h, then uniformly to a distance of not less than 5m from the opposite plane of the vehicle.
VRU activates the information signal before reaching the last information point (dLPI) and the information signal is maintained all the time in the area surrounded by the maximum and minimum forward separation planes and the near- and far-side separation planes, which is shown in Figure 1 of Appendix 1, without activating the collision warning signal.
Accelerate to 10+0/-0.5km/h before entering the parking lane, and then decelerate to a stop after 5m of uniform motion, with a deceleration distance of 10m, so that the front of the vehicle is at Pstop, and so that the vehicle is no longer in forward gear.
At first stationary in the position of Pcyc, the distance between the front of the vehicle and the most tail of the VRU 100 +10/-0mm gap, when the big car after stopping, after a delay of not less than 10s, the VRU began to accelerate from 0 straight line to 10 +0/-0.5km/h, acceleration distance within 5m, and then deceleration, lateral movement tolerance should not exceed ± 0.05m.
The large vehicle is activated before reaching the stopping plane distance (pstop) corresponding to the last information point (dLPI) in Figure 2 of Appendix 1, and the MOIS information signal is maintained until the VRU crosses at least the vehicle front distance associated with the maximum forward separation distance (dFSP) in Figure 2 of Appendix 1. The collision warning signal may be activated as appropriate.
Accelerate to 10+0/-0.5km/h before entering the parking lane, and then decelerate to a stop after 5m of uniform motion, with a deceleration distance of 10m, so that the front of the vehicle is at pstop, and so that the vehicle is no longer in forward gear.
At first stationary at the position of pcyc, the distance between the front of the vehicle and the most rear of the VRU 100+10/-0mm gap, when the big car is stopped, after a delay of not less than 10s, the big car and the VRU at the same time began to accelerate from 0 straight line to 10+0/-0.5km/h, the acceleration distance within 5m, and then maintain a uniform speed until the big car from the pstop at the total driving The distance is not less than 15m, and the tolerance of lateral movement of both the big car and VRU should not exceed ±0.05m.
The vehicle is activated before it reaches the stopping plane distance (pstop) corresponding to the last information point (dLPI) in Figure 2 of Appendix 1, and the MOIS information signal is maintained until the vehicle crosses a distance of at least 15m from the pstop in Figure 2 of Appendix 1. The collision warning signal can be activated depending on the situation.
BSIS Testing Items
Trucks: Stationary to 30km/h forward speed Bicycle: 5 km/h -20 km/h Bicycle dummy: reference ISO [CD] 19206-4 Only information signals are tested, no warning signals are involved
Stationary truck Bicycle: 5 km/h - 20 km/h parallel and perpendicular to the truck, respectively Bicycle dummy: reference ISO [CD] 19206-4 Only information signals are tested, no warning signals are involved
Automatic deactivation testing
BSIS is automatically deactivated after ice, snow, mud or other contamination, and automatically restarted after the contamination is removed.