Driver Drowsiness and Attention Warning Systems (DDAW)
Fatigue negatively affects driver’s physical, cognitive, psychomotor and sensory processing capabilities, which are needed for safe driving. Research shows that driver fatigue is a contributory factor in up to 20% of road collisions and up to 25% of fatalities and serious injuries. In recognition of these alarming statistics, the EC is developing the technical requirements for a system which monitors drivers’ levels of drowsiness and warns them when they are too drowsy to drive safely.
Article 6 of Regulation (EU) 2019/2144 requires motor vehicles of categories M and N to be equipped with certain advanced vehicle systems, including driver drowsiness and attention warning (DDAW) systems. This Regulation applies to motor vehicles of categories M and N, as defined in points (a) and (b) of Article 4(1) of Regulation (EU) 2018/858 with a maximum design speed above 70 km/h. Driver drowsiness and attention warning (DDAW) systems monitor a driver’s level of drowsiness and alert the driver through the vehicle human machine interface (HMI). Meanwhile, any processing of personal data in DDAW system shall be carried out in accordance with Union data protection law.
DDAW regulation enters force on August, 2021. It shall apply for new types vehicle from 6 July 2022 and for new cars vehicle from 6 July 2024.
ATIC experts are working under designated technical services in Europe to conduct Initial Assessment, Witness Testing and CoP assessment as authorized inspectors under authorities including e/E4 Netherland, e/E5 Sweden, e/E13 Luxembourg, e/E24 Ireland, e/E49 Cyprus.
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Manufacturer submits DDAW application documents
Manufacturer submits system functionality and system validation documents
ATIC experts review application document.
ATIC experts evaluate the documentation package.
ATIC experts assess the manufacturer's test plan and capability, then perform the test based on the proposed protocol
Authority will review and issue type approval certificate if all the documents, tests, drawings fulfill the regulation and requirements.
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DDAW Systems Technical Requirement
▸ DDAW System Control
▸ Environmental Conditions
▸ Monitoring Driver Drowsiness
▸ Human Machine Interface Requirements
▸ DDAW Failure Warning
It shall not be possible for the driver to manually deactivate the DDAW system. It may however be possible for the driver to manually deactivate the DDAW system HMI warnings.
Any activation and deactivation of DDAW systems need to meet regulatory requirements. The DDAW system shall be automatically activated above the speed of 70 km/h.
The DDAW system shall operate effectively during the day and night.
The DDAW system shall operate in absence of weather conditions limiting the system’s operation.
The DDAW system shall provide a warning at a level of drowsiness which is equivalent to or above 8 on KSS.
The DDAW system may provide a warning to the driver at a level of drowsiness which is equivalent to level 7 on KSS.
Manufacturer may implement an information strategy on the HMI prior to the warning.
The DDAW system shall analyse other vehicle systems for detection of drowsy driving indicators, such as a reduction in the number of micro-corrections within driver steering and an increase in the variability of a vehicle’s lateral lane position.
It is possible to use one or more secondary metrics to aid the reliability and robustness of the system. Examples of such metrics include: additional vehicle metrics, temporal metrics, physiological metrics and vehicle control metrics.
Visual and acoustic or any other warning used by the DDAW system to alert the driver shall be presented as soon as possible after occurrence of the trigger behaviour and may cascade and intensify until acknowledgement thereof by the driver.
The visual and acoustic warning shall be easily recognized by the driver. The symbols of visual warning shall comply with the requirements.
When there are failures detected in the DDAW system, visual failure warning signals shall be provided.
Temporary visual failure warning signal can be used as complimentary information to the constant optical failure warning signal.
DDAW Systems Test Procedures
▸ Manufacturer Verification Test
▸ Testing Requirements
▸ Test Sample
▸ Environmental Conditions
▸ Measuring Drowsiness
▸ Alternative Drowsiness Threshold
▸ Test Results
▸ Acceptance Criteria
Manufacturers shall carry out validation testing to ensure that DDAW systems are able to monitor driver drowsiness in a manner which is accurate, robust and scientifically valid.
The validation testing of the DDAW shall meet the requirements set out in points 2 to 8 of this section. The manufacturer shall document the validation process in the documentation package to be provided by the manufacturer.
Validation testing shall take place using human participants. Alternatively the data used for the validation shall derive from behaviour data collected with human participants.
If validation testing is performed in a simulator, the manufacturer shall document its limitations with regard to real-world open road testing for the purpose of testing the DDAW system.
The minimum sample size of participants shall be 10 participants.
The participants shall correspond to the targeted demography for the vehicle.
At a minimum, the system shall be tested in the day and night conditions from point 4.1.1. or 4.1.2., and record at least a true positive event in each conditions. It is not necessary for each participants to test both conditions.
Systems not affected by light do not need to meet the minimum number of true positive event in each conditions indicated above.
The participant’s level of drowsiness shall be measured using the KSS.
Manufacturers may use an alternative measurement(s) to validate a DDAW system under the following conditions, such as EEG or PERCLOS, or measurement is performed by sleep video analysis performed by at least 3 sleep experts.
Manufacturers may use complementary measurement(s) to KSS or the alternative measurement(s) to validate a DDAW system, which shall be duly documented in the documentation package under Part 3.
If alternative or complementary measurements are used, the manufacture shall state the threshold being used and provide evidence detailing the equivalency between the threshold and a KSS level of 8.
Test data shall only be discarded before any statistical analysis is conducted in any of the following cases:
(a) there is an error in carrying out the testing procedure;
(b) the participant’s KSS ratings are deemed unreliable;
(c) insufficient data is collected for a participant.
The manufacturer shall document any errors as part of the evidence in the documentation package.
The average sensitivity is above 40 %, or the lower bound from the 90% confidence interval of the sensitivity results shall be above 20%.
If using interval time above 15 minutes and tests performed in a simulated environment, the criteria will be modified according to the regulation.
Assessment Process for Technical Documentation & Verification Testing
▸ Manufacturer Provides Documentation Package
▸ The Technical Service Organization Assess
The manufacturer shall provide to the approval authority and technical service a documentation package containing evidence of the effectiveness of the system. The documentation package shall cover both, the system functionality and the system validation.
The technical service shall assess the DDAW system documentation package and test report. The technical service may use means at its discretion for the assessment of the test report.
The technical service shall assess the capability of the test protocol to detect a drowsy driving event. The technical service shall also perform the test based on the proposed protocol.