VECTO | EU 2017/2400 | REGULATION 2017/2400 | Heavy-duty Vehicles EU Certification | EU Certification


VECTO/HDV Emission Simulation
Heavy-duty Vehicles (HDVs) currently contribute to a quarter of road transport emissions in the EU, and it is projected that by 2030, they will account for 32% of on-road CO2 emissions. In order to achieve the EU's emission reduction goals, the EU needs to implement policy measures that promote energy efficiency in HDVs.

Due to the diversity of configurations and testing challenges associated with HDVs, the EU has opted for a computer simulation-based approach, known as VECTO (Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation TOol), to determine emissions and energy consumption. Starting from 2019, the certification process for CO2 emissions and fuel consumption has been integrated into the type approval process for specific vehicle groups.

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  • Implementation of Regulation (EC) No 595/2009.
  • Supplement to the legal framework established by Regulation (EU) No 582/2011 concerning the type-approval of vehicles and engines emissions, as well as vehicle maintenance and maintenance information.
  • Specifies the rules for issuing licenses for operating simulation tools.
  • Determines the carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumption of new vehicles to be sold, registered, or put into use in the European Union. The regulation involves operating the simulation tool and reporting the determined values of carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumption.
  • Scope: medium/heavy lorries and heavy buses (N2/N3/M3).
  • Propulsion energy of vehicle: fuel/electric/hybrid.
  • Last updated: 2023/01/01. Entry into force: 20th days after publication. 
  • Heavy-Duty Vehicles (HDVs) currently account for a quarter of EU road transport emissions and are projected to account for 32% of on-road CO2 emissions in 2030.
  • In order to achieve EU emission reduction targets, policy measures to promote energy efficient HDVs need to be introduced.
  • Due to the diversity of HDV configurations and testing challenges, the EU has opted for computer-based simulations (VECTO) to determine emissions and energy consumption.
  • Starting in 2019, certification procedures for CO2 emissions and fuel consumption are included in the type approval process for specific groups of vehicles.

List of Applied Product and Standards

  • A specialized tool developed by the European Union for simulating the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles
  • Integrate relevant parameters of key components and overall vehicle information into a comprehensive vehicle working file
  • Perform simulation calculations on this entire vehicle working file to determine the levels of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption
  • Employs different functional modules to convert the relevant parameters of components into XML files
  • Generates vehicle information (Job Data) for simulation according to various vehicle configurations
  • Produces a Customer's Record File and a Manufacturer's Records File for public disclosure after simulation
  • All files undergo digital signing and encryption, and they are published on the production Conformity of Certificate to ensure traceability and prevent tampering

Image from: European Union official website

  • Input
Components data
Hasing for integrity

  • Output
CO2 emission [g/km, g/ g/, g/]
Energy consumptions [g/km, g/ g/, g/, MJ/km, kWh/km]
Electric and zero emission range

  • Purpose
EEA supervision
Ensure CO2 emission level

Components: vehicle info, emission/consumption/ranges, software version

Obtain VECTO License

  • Establish a data management system
  • Download and install the latest version of the software
  • Conduct training for staff (training session)
  • Submit an application with information file to Type Approval Authority

Component List

Annex V
Annex VI
Torque Converters
Annex VI
Other Torque Transferring Components
Annex VI
Additional Driveline Components
Annex VI
Annex VII
Air Drags
Annex VIII
Annex IX
Annex X
Electric Powertrain Components
Annex Xb

Standard values or generic values of components can be derived by means of calculation formulas or defined reference values.
Standard/generic values can be used for simulation, but may be subject to excessive errors (e.g. in simulated emission results).

Components that can be estimated using standard/generic values
  • Transmission/torque converter/retarder/angle drive - Estimates torque loss based on maximum torque output of transmission 
  • Axles - Estimates torque loss based on axle model
  • Air drag - Estimates Cd*A based on vehicle type
  • Tires - Estimates RRC based on tire type

Electrical powertrain - Estimates motor power loss and torque loss based on motor information (R85), and estimates maximum current and capacitance based on battery pack information (R100).

  • The test methods defined for each component within 2017/2400 will result in certified values for calculating emissions.
  • The certified values can be used for parts of the same families.
  • Parts manufacturers can apply for 2017/2400 certification as STU.

Output - Certificated value
Air drag
Road test (coastdown)
Cd x A
Drum test
Torque loss
Torque loss map
Engine dynamometer test (UNECE 49)
Fuel map/load curve/WHTC correction factor
Electric motor
Electric dynamometer test
Power map/load curve and resistance
charging/discharging cycle
Capacity, Voc, Ri, Imax
charging/discharging cycle
Capacity, Resistance
Declared by manufacturer

Transitional Provisions

If the manufacturer's obligation to perform simulation as defined in Article 9 cannot be fulfilled, the acquired WVTA will no longer be valid.

The WVTA expiration dates for the corresponding vehicle groups are as follows:
  • Group 4/5/9/10 (N3) - from 2019/07/01
  • Group 1/2/3 (N2&N3) - from 2020/01/01
  • Group 11/12/16 (N2&N3) - from 2020/07/01
  • Group 53/54 (N2) - from 2024/07/01
  • Group 31-40 (M3) - from2025/01/01
  • Group 1s (N2) - from 2024/07/01

For new vehicles, the effective date of the obligation to simulate the calculation of whole vehicle emissions is:
  • Group 53/54 (N2) - from production date after 2024/01/01
  • Group 31-40 (M3) - from production date after 2024/01/01
  • Group 1s (N2) - from production date after 2024/01/01
  • Group 1-5/9-12/16/4v/5v/9v/10v (N2/N3) - from production date after 2024/01/01


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