Brief: Environmental protection, low-carbon, electronic, and intelligence have become the characteristics of modern automobiles. Hybrid, fuel cells, pure electric driving systems, and the introduction of a large number of automotive electronic components have brought new challenges in automotive electrical and electronic safety. In recent years, the global automotive electronic and electrical system related technical regulations show explosive development trend. Authorities, OEMs, top suppliers and stakeholders from Europe, USA, Japan and South Korea are very active in the development of global motor vehicle regulations, while Chinese native OEMs are also in the high-speed development and innovation stage, pay attention and study global automotive electronics and electrical new regulations, initiate technical route planning and compliance planning in advance is conducive to vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers to lower compliance risks and costs, as well as to ensure new vehicle models hit the market as planned.
The global regulatory system of vehicle electronics and electrical is quite complex, taking the UN Regulation of the Economic Commission for Europe and EU regulations as examples, the mandatory safety regulations of vehicle electronics and electricals currently include electromagnetic compatibility, high voltage electrical safety, recyclability, cybersecurity, general data protection, software updates, radio equipment directive, REACH regulation, etc. Besides the general regulations above there are more and more specific regulations related to the specific E/E system are published, safety and performance testing and certification requirements are specified. Also, for electrical and electronic systems, if they are related to traditional vehicle structural safety regulations, then they shall also fulfill these regulations, such as interior fittings, external protrusions, etc. The following is an overview of these regulations and typical test items.
Regulation: UN Regulation No. 10
All independent technical units, components, systems and motor vehicles related to EMC need to consider this regulation, tests shall be done and approvals shall be issued in complete vehicle or component or independent technical unit level respectively.
Radiated broadband electromagnetic emissions from vehicles
Radiated narrowband electromagnetic emissions from vehicles
Immunity of vehicles to electromagnetic radiation
Emission of radiofrequency conducted disturbances on AC or DC power lines from vehicles
Emission of radiofrequency conducted disturbances on network and telecommunication access from vehicles
Immunity of vehicles to Electrical Fast Transient/Burst disturbances conducted along AC and DC power lines
Immunity of vehicles to surges conducted along AC and DC power lines
Emission of voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker on AC power lines from vehicle
Emission of harmonics generated on AC power lines from vehicle
Radiated broadband electromagnetic emissions from electrical/electronic sub-assemblies
Radiated narrowband electromagnetic emissions from electrical/electronic sub-assemblies
Immunity of electrical/electronic sub-assemblies to electromagnetic radiation
Immunity to transients of electrical/electronic sub-assemblies
Emission of transients of electrical/electronic sub-assemblies
HIGH VOLTAGE SAFETY
Regulations: UN Regulation No. 100 Part I, UN Regulation No. 136 Part I
Electric power train of road vehicles of categories M and N, with a maximum design speed exceeding 25 km/h, equipped with one or more traction motor(s) operated by electric power and not permanently connected to the grid, as well as their high voltage components and systems which are galvanically connected to the high voltage bus of the electric power train are subject to the UN Regulation No. 100 Part I. Electric power train of vehicles of category L with a maximum design speed exceeding 6 km/h, equipped with one or more traction motor(s) operated by electric power and not permanently connected to the grid, as well as their high voltage components and systems which are galvanically connected to the high voltage bus of the electric power train are required to comply with UN Regulation No. 136 Part I for high voltage safety. Although the high-voltage safety part of these two regulations is tested on the vehicle level, but the component or system manufacturer also needs to consider its technical requirements.
Direct contact protection (vehicle)
Indirect contact protection (vehicle)
Insulation resistance (vehicle)
Rechargeable Electrical Energy Storage System (REESS) (vehicle)
Functional safety (vehicle)
Hydrogen emission (vehicle)
RECHARGEABLE ELECTRICAL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM (REESS)
Regulations: UN Regulation No. 100 Part II, UN Regulation No. 136 Part II
For Rechargeable Electrical Energy Storage Systems (REESS) used in motor vehicles of categories M and N, it is required to be tested in accordance with UN Regulation No. 100 Part II and obtain a type approval certificate. For the Rechargeable Electrical Energy Storage System (REESS) used in motor vehicle of category L, it is required to be tested according to UN Regulation No. 136 Part II and obtain the type approval certificate.
Test Items (UNR 100):
External short circuit protection
Thermal shock and cycling
Test Items (UNR 136):
Thermal shock and cycling
Mechanical drop test for removable REESS
External short circuit protection
IN-VEHICLE TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICE
In-vehicle radio telecommunication devices such as remote keys and using 2G/3G/4G, Bluetooth/WIFI, NFC, etc. need to be certified according to Directive 2014/53/EU.
FUNCTIONAL SAFETY OF COMPLEX ELECTRONIC VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEMS
Regulations: UNR 13/H, UNR 79 etc.
There are special requirements to be applied to the safety aspects of complex electronic vehicle control systems in several EU/UN regulations, these requirements do not specify the performance criteria for "The System" but covers the methodology applied to the design process and the information which shall be disclosed to the Technical Service, for type approval purposes. This information shall show that "The System" respects, under normal and fault conditions, all the appropriate performance requirements specified elsewhere in this Regulation.
Manufacturers of complex electronic vehicle control systems generally consider the ISO26262 standard during product design and manufacturing.
Recyclability regulation apply to vehicles belonging to categories M1 and N1 and intended to apply for unlimited volume WVTA certificate. This regulation is not limited to electrical and electronic units but applicable for all systems and components of the vehicle, recyclability data, technical documentation shall be reviewed by technical service and type approval certificate shall be issued.
CYBERSECURITY, SOFTWARE UPDATES, GENERAL DATA PROTECTION
Regulations: UNR 155, UNR 156, GDPR
Within the next few years, smart cars’ connectivity is expected to expand and smart cars will become connected to other vehicles, pedestrians and their surrounding infrastructure through information exchanges via V2X communications. This comes with significant cybersecurity risks, as hackers seek to access electronic systems and data, threatening vehicle safety and consumer privacy. The two new UN Regulations, adopted by UNECE’s World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations, require that measures be implemented across 4 distinct disciplines: Managing vehicle cyber risks; Securing vehicles by design to mitigate risks along the value chain; Detecting and responding to security incidents across vehicle fleet; Providing safe and secure software updates and ensuring vehicle safety is not compromised, introducing a legal basis for so-called “Over-the-Air” (O.T.A.) updates to on-board vehicle software. The regulations will apply to passenger cars, vans, trucks and buses. They have been in force since January 2021. In the European Union, the new regulation on cyber security will be mandatory for all new vehicle types from July 2022 and will become mandatory for all new vehicles produced from July 2024. General data protection provisions are specified in cybersecurity and software updates regulations as well as other E/E specific regulations, for the interpretation of these provisions OEMs and suppliers shall refer to GDPR.
Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006
REACH is abbreviation of Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical, came into force on 1st June 2007 and effective from 1st June 2008, is applicable for all chemicals, not only those used in factories, but also substances in our daily lives. For example, chemicals in cleaning products, paints, clothing, furniture, electronics, and automotive products all need to comply with REACH regulations.
SPECIALIZED REGULATIONS FOR COMPONENTS OR SEPARATE TECHNICAL UNITS
For a variety of automotive electronic and electrical related products, there are specialized regulations. Some of the related system need to be tested and homologated in the component level first then also homologation need to be done on vehicle level, some of the related system shall only fulfill testing and homologation requirements in vehicle level, manufactures can follow the scope description in the specific regulations. Currently these regulations are:
Light source, lighting and light-signal devices (UNR3, 4, 6, 7, 19, 23, 27, 37, 38. 50, 69. 70, 77, 87, 98, 99, 104, 112, 113, 123, 128, 148, 149, 150)
Audible warning devices (UNR28)
Headlamp cleaners (UNR45)
Devices for indirect vision (UNR46),
Drive motors (UNR85)
Speed limitation device (UNR89)
Anti-theft and alarm systems (UNR97, R116)
REESS (UNR100, 136)
Brake Assist Systems (BAS)(UNR 139)
Electronic stability control systems ESC (UNR140)
Tire pressure monitoring system TPMS (UNR141)
Accident Emergency Call Systems AECS (eCall)(UNR 144)
Blind Spot Information System for The Detection of Bicycles (BSIS)(UNR 151)
Advanced Emergency Braking System (AEBS)(UNR 152)
Automated Lane-Keeping Systems (ALKS)(UNR 157)
Reversing Motion (UNR158)
Moving-Off Information Systems (MOIS)(UNR159)
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe and EU regulations apply to dozens of countries around the world, the regulatory system is comprehensive and frequently revised, other countries and regions generally refer to some of and UN and EU regulations in the formulation and development of their own motor vehicle regulations. For other countries and regions, compliance planning can generally refer to the UN and EU regulatory framework. ATIC is dedicate to implement systematic research and fine management on global motor vehicle regulations, using the industry-leading digital system developed by ATIC to manage regulations, products and process database. Currently ATIC database covers more than 18,000 regulatory and procedure data from more than 50 countries around the world, providing life-cycle compliance services and certification services to vehicle manufacturers and their suppliers.
ATIC GLOBAL HOMOLOGATION RESEARCH AND VEHICLE CERTIFICATION DEPARTMENT
ATIC Automotive Regulation Research and Vehicle Homologation Product Line is dedicated to global automotive regulation research, homologation procedure research and WVTA homologation project management.
Based on ATIC digital platform, our team provides a series of automotive compliance services including market access solutions, technical review, regulation interpretation, regulation database and update, training and Q&A, etc.
ATIC homologation experts are nominated by European technical service and authorities covering all EU/UN regulations for M/N/O/T/L/NRMM category vehicle, system, component and separate technical unit. Authorities includes Netherlands (e/E4), Sweden (e/E5), Luxembourg (e/E13), Ireland (e/E24) and Cyprus (e/E49).
ATIC is long-term compliance and homologation service provider for GWM, GEELY, SAIC MOTOR, BYD, XPENG, NIO, RIMAC,Smart etc. top domestic and international OEMs, and HUAWEI, CATL, SVOLT, FINDREAMS etc. system and component manufactures.