R165 REVERSING SOUND WARNING DEVICE

R165 REVERSING SOUND WARNING DEVICE

RELEASE DATE:2023-08-21 11:18

Brief: Reversing warning sounds have existed in the past but have not been clearly defined by specific law, which has led to accidents on the road due to insufficient warning sounds. In addition, the sound may become noise in different occasions is also a very important problem. To this end, WP29 issued UN Regulation No. 165 on 13 March 2023, which entered into force on the day of its adoption.



INTRODUCTION OF AUDIBLE REVERSE WARNING DEVICE
The term "Audible reverse warning device" refers to a device that sends an audible signal to the outside of the vehicle when reversing, in order to give an audible warning of the presence of the vehicle. The audible reverse warning device is automatically switched on when reversing and emits a warning sound appropriate to the actual environment. Thereby, while avoiding the generation of noise, it serves as an adequate warning to pedestrians or other road users in the vicinity of the vehicle, in particular at the rear.

R165 SCOPE OF APPLICATION
Part I : Approval of audible reverse warning devices;
Part II : Approval of the motor vehicles of categories M2 (M > 3500 kg), N2, N3 and M3.

CLASSIFICATION OF REVERSING AUDIBLE WARNING DEVICE
Number
Name
Definition
1
Non-self-adjusting audible reverse warning device
a device which gives audible reverse warning sound independent of "Ambient noise" levels
2
Self-adjusting audible reverse warning device
a device which automatically adjusts its sound level, throughout a defined range, in order to maintain a sound level differential between the sound output of the device and the "Ambient noise" measured by itself
3
Stepwise self-adjusting audible reverse warning device
a device which automatically adjusts to a fixed sound level (covering Low level, Normal level or High level), depending on the "Ambient noise" measured by itself
4
Multiple audible reverse warning system
a combination of "Non-self-adjusting audible reverse warning devices" capable of functioning independently when applying "Low level", "Normal level", "High level"


R165 REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
Part I : Audible reverse warning device
1.Technical requirements:
(1).Requirements for the audible signal to be emitted by the audible reverse warning device:
  • The pattern of the audible signal, including at least one silent part, shall be repeatable from 24 to 120 times per minute;
  • This requirement applies only to non-self-adjusting audible reverse warning device if they are powered by alternating current;
  • Two samples are required to be provided for all tests.
(2) Alternative sounds: may be selected by the driver, provided they comply with the provisions in the test methods below and are approved.

2. Test items:
Number
Items name
Items Summary
1
Acoustic tests
(1)Classified into two tests, one pair of "non-self-aligning reversing audible warning devices" and "multi-channel reversing warning systems", and the other pair of "self-aligning reversing audible warning devices" and "stepped self-aligning reversing audible warning devices";
(2)Silenced room (preferably),semi-anechoic chamber or on test site or open space according to ISO 10844:2014: temperature (+5 °C to +40 °C), wind speed (not exceeding 5 m/s), air pressure, relative humidity, background noise (below 10 dB);
(3)Audible reverse warning device: height of 1.2 ± 0.05m;
(4)Loudspeaker (simulates ambient noise sound source):at the same height as the reversing audible warning device and at a distance of 1±0.1m;
(5)Microphone (microphone): must be positioned facing the front surface of the audible reversing alarm device, at the same height as the reversing audible warning device and the loudspeaker and at a distance of 1±0.1m from both;
2
Mechanical test
(1)The same test is required and applied to all types of reversing audible warning devices;
(2)Temperature durability testing in series:one hour at 70, -30, 50 and -20°C respectively;
(3)Durability continuous test:50 hours of continuous operation at 25°C ± 11°C;
(4)Vibration endurance test:
2000 cycles per minute ± 10% 
Amplitude: 2mm ± 10% 
Direction: 30 minutes in each of the three directions X, Y and Z Temperature: 25°C ± 11°C

Part II :Audible reverse warning signals for motor vehicles
1.Technical requirements:
(1)Capable of emitting sound and self-starting (when reverse gear is selected and propulsion system is on)
(2)Resistant to vibration (design, construction, assembly).
(3)Resistant to corrosion (including regional climate differences, design, construction, assembly).
(4)In case a device has more than one mode, the reverse warning device shall be automatically activated to its default mode when the vehicle is restarted following each vehicle turn-off. For "Non-self-adjusting audible reverse warning device", "Multiple audible reverse warning system", and for "Stepwise self-adjusting audible reverse warning device" the default mode is the "Normal level".
(5)Alternative sounds: may be selected by the driver, provided they comply with the provisions in the test methods below and are approved.
(6)If the vehicle is not equipped with a "self-adjusting audible reverse warning device" or a "stepwise self-adjusting audible reverse warning device" and it is intended to fit the vehicle with a "non-self-adjusting audible reverse warning device" and/or a “multiple audible reverse warning system" in their territory,  the Contracting State must declare the type of audible reverse warning device in accordance with these Regulations.
(7)Pause function: When a vehicle is equipped with an audible reverse warning device and fitted with a rear visibility or detection device as described in paragraph 1.3 of UN Regulation No. 158, it is permissible for the manufacturer to fit a pause function to allow the driver to temporarily suspend the functioning of the audible reverse warning device when checking for danger zones to the rear of the vehicle, including towing of a category O vehicle. However, ensure that the pause function is always functional when reversing and prohibit any other disabled function that does not comply with the specification.

2.Test items:
Number
Items Name
Items Summary
1
Stationary vehicles acoustic test
(1)Classified into two tests, one pair of "non-self-aligning reversing audible warning devices" and "multi-channel reversing warning systems", and the other pair of "self-aligning reversing audible warning devices" and "stepped self-aligning reversing audible warning devices";
(2)Truck: stationary
(3)Audible reverse warning device: fitted on the area of the rear overhung, height of 1.2 ± 0.05m
(4)Loudspeaker (simulates ambient noise sound source):at the same height as the reversing audible warning device and at a distance of 7±0.1m
(5)Microphone (microphone): must be positioned facing the front surface of the audible reversing alarm device, at the same height as the reversing audible warning device and the loudspeaker and at a distance of 7±0.1m from both
2
The pause function test(if any)
Field of view: with rear visibility or detection device in accordance with UN R158, paragraph 1.3

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Justin
Justin Jiang
Global Regulatory Research Department
Justin is a global automotive regulatory researcher at ATIC, focusing on automotive electronics and automotive connected grid cross-domain compliance and certification solutions.
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Mail: cs@atic-cn.com